Please visit Thinking Skills for the Digital Generation by Athreya and Mouza at Springer.com

Sunday, December 1, 2013

Mokṣa


(Please note that this is the first time I am using standard scheme of transliteration to write Sanskrit words using English alphabet. It takes more time to compose. But it is worth the effort)

Moka and mukti have the same verb root – muc (pronounced as in book), to let go, release. Mukti is the process and the moksha is the final state. This has different names in different systems of philosophy of India.

It is called apavarga in the Nyaya-Vaiseshika system. This is complete cessation of effort by the soul and its absolute detachment from the body and the mind. In this state there is no happiness or suffering.

In the Samkhya-yoga system it is called Kaivalya (root word, kevala, meaning to stand apart from). This is because of the eternal isolation of Purusha from the Prakriti with its modifications. Since bondage is not a property of Purusha, once the jivan attains this state, it reaches the eternal blissful state of the Purusha.

In Mimamsa, it is called moka which is the stopping of the cycle of samsara and hence release from the cycles of pain and pleasure.

In Buddhism, it is Nirvana, a state of void, state beyond atman. There is Peace, but not the bliss (ananda) of aḍvaita.

In Jainism, it is nirvana, but defined as disintegration of the krmika sarira ( body with actions).

In aivism, it is reaching the abode of bliss which is Kailasam, the abode of Lord iva. In Vainava faith, it is reaching Vaikuntam, the abode of Vinu. In vaitam in general, it is Swargam for the “salvaged” souls. Obviously, it is “narakam” for the “bad souls”.


In Sktam (Devi/Sakti worshippers) it is called apara̅jita.

No comments: