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Sunday, September 14, 2014

Categories and Definitions in Sanskrit - Continued


Ṣadānga – six limbs of the Vaida’s - Śikṣā ( grammar of alphabets), vyākaraṇa (grammar of words), chandas (meter), niruktam (meaning and etymology), jyōthiṣam (astrology), kalpam (procedural)
Ṣaddhvā – six ways of knowing the spiritual- through alphabets, words, meaning of words, mantra, parts of the Universe, basic elements and Universe.

Ṣad Īti – six calamities or afflictions - ativrṣti (excess rain), anāvrṣti (no rain), śalabha (locust), mūṣka (rats, mouse), śuka (parrots) and pratyāsanna (foreign invasion)

 Ṣad vikāra of created objects are  Jāyate (born), asti (exists, is), vardhate (grows), vipariṇīmate (develops), kṣhīyate (decreases) and naśyate (perishes)
Six duties of a Brahmin are adyayana (learning scriptures), adyāpanam (teaching scriptures), yajanam ( begging for food), yājanam (giving food), dānam (charity) and pratigraham (?)
Six seasons (rtu) In India the seasons are divided into 6, not 4. They are vasanta (spring), grīṣma (summer), varṣa (rainy), sarad (autumn),  hemanta (cloudy), śiśir (winter)
Sapta riṣi - Bhrugu, Mārīci, Atri, Ᾱngīrasa, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu. (some replace Bhrugu with Vasiṣta).  These riṣi’s vary with each manvantara
Sapta dhatavah - rasa, srunga, māmasa, meda, asthi, majja, śukra ( some add three more, they are keśa, tvak and snyu. (snyu, is tendon, as is sinew in English)
Sapta lōka - bhū, bhuvah, svah, ahah, janah, tapah, satyam
Aṣtānga namaskāram  -  During prostration in front of the deity and elders, for men eight parts of the body are to touch the ground. They are dōrbhyām padbhyām jānubhyām urasā śirasā druśā, manasā vacasā ca iti prṇāmō Aṣtānga īritah. They are respectively, shoulders, feet, knees, chest, head, sight, mind and lips or mouth . A variation uses the words pāṇibhyām for dōrbhyām, and dhiyā for manasā. For women this is substituted with five parts touching the ground. The parts omitted are shoulders, chest and mouth.
Navāvasthā (nine states of the body) are niṣeka (conception), garbha (pregnancy), janma (birth), bālya (infancy), kaumāra (childhood, yauvana (youth), madhyam (middle age), jarā (decay) and mrithyu (death) (Uddhava Gita 17:46)
Navabhakti vidānam (nine ways of showing devotion, worship) are śravaṇa (hearing the Lord’s name and stories), kīrtana (singing His glory and name), smaraṇa (remembering Him, always), pādasaivana (serving at His feet), arcana (special method in which one repeats His name and offer flowers at his feet), dāsya (becoming His slave), vandana (thanking Him, expressing gratitude), sakhya (being His friend) and ātmanivaidana (surrendering to Him).
Navarasa (Nine expression of moods in dance and drama) include śrngāram (amorous), bhībhatsam (disgust), rōṣa or raudra (anger), vismaya (surprise), vīram (Courage), bhayam (fear), hāsyam (humor), śokam (sadness) and śāntam (peace). But, the original treatise of Bharata listed only eight, and śāntam was not in that list
Yama ( observances based on self control, control of the senses, abstaining from; these are Passive). According to Patanajali, there are five. They are ahimsa  (non-injury), satya (truth) asteya  (nonstealing), brahmacarya (celibacy) and aparigraha (nonpossession)
     In another definition, 10 items are included. They are: brahmacaryam dayā kṣānti dānam satyam akalkatā: ahimsa asteyam mādurye dama ca iti yamā smrutāh.  (celibacy, compassion, forbearance charity truth-telling honesty non-injury non-stealing kind speech and self-restraint (calm)
Niyama (restraint, vow, voluntary, not obligatory, self-imposed, externally assisted; these need Active participation) They are 10 in number, as listed in Śoucam ijya tapō dānam svādyāya upasta nigrahah:  vratam, mounam, upvāsam ca snānam ca niyamā daśa.  They are (in order) Purity, worship, charity, education, control of the mind, vow or observance, silence, day of food intake/fasting and holy bath.
            Another list from Uddhava gita (12:34-35) includes: cleanliness, bathing and sipping of water before functions (called ācamanam), performance of fire-oblations, straightforwardness, visiting holy places, repetition of mantra (japa), avoidance of things not to be touched, looking upon all beings as Brahman, and control of mind, speech and bodily actions.
            However, the only five Niyama’s are suggested in Patanjali yoga śāstra in preparation for meditation/rāja yōga are: purity, contentment, austerity, learning and devotion (to pure knowledge).  

Twelve Ᾱditya are Gods of Rg Vaida.  Dhatā rudrō yamā mitrō varuṇah sūrya aiva ca
                                                     Bhagō vivasvān pūṣa ca savitā daśmah (only 10, two more added later, they are Aikādaśh tvaṣtā viṣṇu dvāadaśa ucyatai.

Twelve dharmapatni - Kīrti (fame), Śri (fortune), Vāk (speech), Puṣṭi (healthy body), Śraddha (faith), Kriyā (action), Lajjā (shame?), Mati (understanding), Kṣamā (forgiveness), Smriti (memory), Maidha (intellect) and Dhruti (courage)
Twelve names of Viṣṇu (dvādaśa nāma) are keśva, nārāyaṇa, mādava, gōvinda, viṣṇu, madhusūdana, trivikrama, vāmana, śridara, hriṣīkesa, padmanabha, dāmodhara
Fourteen Manu’s are in sequence:     Svāyambhu, Svārociṣa, Auttami, Tāmasi, Raivata, Cākṣusa, Vaivasvata (current Manu). Yet to come, Sāvarṇi, dakṣa sāvarṇi, brahma sāvarṇi, dharma sāvarṇi, rudra sāvarṇi, deva sāvarṇi and Indra sāvarṇi
Fourteen parts of Vedas         Angāni vaidah catvāro mīmasa nyaya vistarah
                                                Purāṇam dharmaśāstram ca vidyā hi gatā caturdasah

            Four vedās which includes Rg, yajur, sāma,athrva.  Six vedāngās include sīkṣa, vyākarana, chandas, nirukta, jyōtiṣam and kalpa.  Purāṇam, dharmaśāstram, mīmasa and nyaya make fourteen.

Mōkṣa is of 5 kinds: sālōkyam (in sight), sāmībhyam (nearby), sārūpyam (in form), sāyujyam (union) and nirvāṇa (no residue left)

Ratnam (precious stones) are  padmarāgam (ruby), vaiḍuryam (lapis lazuli), puṣparāgam (topaz), mauktikam (pearl), indranalaka (blue sapphire), pravālakam (coral), karketakam (?) and marakatam (emerald or Beryl)

 

 

Sunday, September 7, 2014

Categories and Definitions in Sanskrit - continued


Categories

Deva:   In one system, there are said to be 33 gods, rather “deva”s. They are: Vasu (8), Rudra (11), Ᾱditya (12) (this list included the Sun and Vishnu), Viśvādeva (2).  In another system, there were 9 groups, with a total of 241. This list includes: Ᾱditya (12), Viśvādeva (13), vasu (8), duṣita (36), Ᾱpāswara (64), Mārut (49), rudra (11), Mahārāyar (36), satyar (12). There are other systems with 333 and 330 million counts. No wonder, the westerners were flabbergasted when they encountered these ideas. They are still flabbergasted, when we say that Hindus worship several Gods but believe that there is only ONE SUPREME. 

Devayonisañaka (Demigods) Gandarva – celestial musician

                                                Apsaras – celestial damsels

                                                Nāga – face of a man and tail of a serpent (non-poisonous snake); poisonous snake is called sarpam

                                                Siddha – a sage; a seer; one who has attained siddha (look under siddha for its eight components)

                                                cāraṇa – celestial singer

                                                guhyaka – attendant of Kubera, guardian of heavenly treasures

                                                yakṣa – attendants of Kubera

            Here is a list of Gods and semi-gods from Udhhava Gita Chapter 9: Sloka 5-6:

            Daiva, asura, guhyaka, siddha, gandharva, vidyādara, cāraṇa, kinnara, nāga, rākṣasa, and kimpuruṣa.     

Kāla: (Time) is divided as follows:  1 day = 24 hours (see related Latin derivatives such as  hōra and horoscope)   A day is made of 8 yāma,
                                                            1 yāma is made of 6 muhūrta

                                                            1 muhūrta is 2 nādi (30 minutes)

                                                            1 nādi is 15 laghu (15 minutes)

                                                            1 laghu is 15 kāṣṭam (1 minute)

                                                            1 kāṣṭam is 5 kṣaṇam (4 seconds)

                                                            1 kṣaṇam is 3 nimesham (4/5 second)

                                                            1 nimesham is 3 lavam (4/15 or 0.26 second)

                                                            1 lavam is 3 vedam (0.09 second)

                                                            1 vedam is 100 triṣti (0.03 second)

             Another source (Manu śastra says that One nimisha is the time it takes for one blink of an eye; 18 such nimishas make a kāṣta, 30 kāṣta make one kalā, 30  kalā make one muhūrta and 30 muhūrta make one day 

Siddhi:          there are 8 siddhis. They are: aṇimā, mahimā, laghimā, prāpti, prākāmya, vaśitā, īśitā, kāmavasāyitvā. ( translated in sequence, they are: ability to become minute, become very big, to become light and levitate, to extend, to become irresistible, have self control, ability to rule and consummate all desires)
                        There is another list of siddhis which include:  free from old age, thirst, hunger and death; ability to hear from distance, ability to see from distance, move the body at the speed of the mind, ability to take any form one wishes, enter another’s body, die when one wishes, ability to take on the sports of Gods, have others obey commands, knowledge of present, past and the future, ability to read other’s mind, counteract the effects of fire, poison and a state in which no one can overcome.
Traya (means three, note the similarity to English three).
            trayī – stands for rg, yajur, sāma Vedas
            triguṇa – satva, rajo and tamo guṇa
            trikāla – past, present, future
            trivarga – darma, artha, kāma ( righteous life, wealth and desire)
            trimūrti – brahma, viṣṇu, śiva (creator, protector, dissolver)
            tridanda – control of organs, mind and self
            tāpatraya – suffering due to self (Ᾱdyātmikam), external things (Ᾱdibhautikam) and divine effects (Ᾱdidaivikam)
            trilōka – earth, middle and heaven
            triśarīra – stūla, sūkṣma, kāraṇa
            triguṇa – state of being awake, dream and dreamless sleep

Words have three powers:  abhidha (to be known), lakṣaṇa (sign or indicator) and vyanjana (denoting clearly)

Caturta  means 4
            Caturvaida – rg, yajur, sāma, atharva
            Catur antarāya – (impediments of the mind) – wandering (laya), vikṣhaipa (distracted), kaṣāya (full of passion and dull) and rasāvāda (attached to tastes and flavors)
            Catur varga – (four prameya or proofs) – Śruti (vedic text), partyakṣam (direct perception), anumānam (inference) and aithiham (tradition)
            Catur vyuha – Vāsudeva, samkarṣṇa, pradhyumna, aniruddha
Four methods of worship are based on Vaidīka, Vaikhānasa, Ᾱgama and Tantra 

Panca – means 5, note similarity to penta
            Pancabhūta – 5 elements of Ᾱkāśa (space), vāyu (wind,air), agni (fire), Ᾱapa (water) and prtvi (earth).
            Pancakrityam – sruṣti (creation), stithi (protection), layam (dissolution), tirodānam (covering) and anugraham (blessing)
            Pancha lakṢaṇam of Purāṇa (Five characteristics of an Epic or  Purāṇa are: sarga, anusarga, vamśa, manvantara and vamśānucaritam
            Pancabhaṇa (the bow with flowers in the hands of Lalita and Manmadan) five flowers are aravindam (lotus), aśoka, sūta (mango), navamalli (jasmine) and nīlotpalam.
            Pancayagñam – deva, pitru, manuṣ, bhūta and brahma (for the deities, the ancestors, for the humans or for Manu, for other lives and for Brahman respectively)
            Pancamahāpātakam (five great sins) are brhamhatti (killing a Brahmin), surāpānam (drinking liquor), svarṇasteyam (stealing), gurukalpadamanam (not ?)

Ṣaṣti – means 6.
            Ṣadūrmi – hunger, thirst, grief, delusion, decay and death
            Ṣadvarga/ripu – kāma (desire), krōda (anger), lobha (greed), mada (intoxicated, mad), mōha (delusion) and matsarya (jealousy),
            Ṣadkrma – adhyāpanam (learning), adhyayanam (practice of rituals), yajanam (beg for food), yājanam (performing sacrifice), (thathā)  dānam (charity), pratigraham (accepting what is given) ca iva ṣadkarmāṇi agrajanmanh.                           

           Ṣanmada - gāṇapatyam (worship of Ganeṣa), kaumāram (worship of Muruga), śāktam (worship of Goddess), sauram (worship of Sun), śaivam (worship of śiva)  and vaiṣṇavam (worship of Viṣṇu).  Śaivam may be pāśupatam, vīra, kāṣmīra and śaivasiddhāntam. Vaiṣṇavam may be pāncarātra, ekānti or vaikānasa.

Monday, September 1, 2014

Categories and Definitions in Sanskrit - Continued


Guṇa means quality or attribute. According to the Saṅkhya system, the three constituents (guṇa) of prakriti are sattva, rajas and tamas. Their balance determines the inherent characteristics of all things in this universe. The word Guna is also applied to organs of actions (karmendriya) which are driven by these guṇas.

Guru is so called because  gukārah antakārasyāt rukārah tan nivartikah, antakāra nirōditat guru iti ucchyate budhaih ( Gu stands for darkness ru stands for removal of that darkness; hence guru)

            Ᾱdi Śankara gives the following characteristics of a Guru.  Śāntā mahānto nivasanti santo, vasantavat lōkāhitam carantah, tīrṇāh svayam bhīmabhavārṇavam janān, ahetuna anyān api tārayantah.  They always live in peace (and harmony). They move like spring breeze in this world. They have crossed the ocean of life and can help everyone cross it with ease.

Indra:   The original name seems to be idandran, which is a combination of “idam” (this, Brahman) and “dran” (have seen). One who has seen Brahman, is Indran.(Idam aadarsham ithi tasmaat idandrah, vai naama idandrah) .

            The root word is ind, means to be powerful.The other etymology for the word Indra is indati iti, indrah.

Indriya:            Indralingam indradriṣtam indrasriṣtam indrajruṣtam indradattham ithi Indriyam” says the definition. In other words, the organs of sense and action owe their origin, power and qualities to Indra, the Lord of the Deva’s. In Uddhava gīta (11:36), Lord Kriṣna says: sarvaindriya indriyam, that is “I am the one who gives the power for the organs to function”.

Īśvara  has 7 qualities. They are sarvgñatā (all knowing), tripti (self contained), anādibhodam (beginning-less knowledge), svatantratā (in His own power), nitya (eternal) aluptaśakti  (undiminished energy) and anantatā (endless). (look for Jīva below)

Jāti, Kulam and Varṇam are related concepts and the source of so much problems in the Indian society.

Jāti is defined as fixed by birth and therefore, includes race and lineage. Therefore it is specific and defines a “species”. It may include members of a caste (varṇa) or tribe (hunting or fishing) or religion or a class (economic).

Kulam is more a genus than a species and includes tribes and families

Varṇam means color and is applied to what is now called Caste. This word is an unfortunate introduction by the Portugese to whom the word castas means “tribes, clans or families”. The word came to be used to both the varṇa and jāti. Incidentally, the so called caste was not prevalent in the Dravidian culture.

The main point was that there were several guilds (coppersmiths, ironsmiths, carpenters etc) in those days. They formed several jātis (later called castes) who practised the same profession, who married only within their group kula (class or caste) or married “up”, and did not eat in the company of the other groups.

Jīva  also called Paśu is bound by vidya (limited knowledge), rāgam (desires), avidya (ignorance), niyati (fate and luck), kalā (limited expertise) and kāla (time). In the Advaita system, Jīva  is individualized ātman.

Kaiśava as in ka (Brahma), a (Viṣṇu), īśa (śiva) and va (vaśa, or under control). One who is in control of creation, protection and dissolution.

Kumaran         Kutsitān mārayati iti - because He conquers the asurāh (demons) of Kāma (desire, lust) and Krōda (anger). Another derivative is Kutsitō mārō yainah which means one who is more handsome than Māran, another name for the God of Love Manmadan.

Mantra is so called because mananāt trāyate, it protects because of being contemplated on, because it is kept in the mind (manas). In japa, the mantra is not uttered aloud.  (the name mantri for minister is based on the requirement that a minister should keep secrets to himself).

Mōkṣa is defined as:   Mōkṣaya nahi vāsōsti na grāmāntaram vā; agñahrdayagrantināśo Mōkṣa iti smrutah. (from Gita Rahasya of Tilak, Vol 1, page 343) This means that Liberation is not in any particular place. You do not have to go to some other place to get it. Destruction of ignorance in the form of a knot in your heart is known as Liberation.

Muni is different from a riṣi. Muni is defined as a sage, ascetic, saint; one who is indifferent to pain and pleasure; devoid of fear, desire and anger and one of steady mind. The term riṣi denotes a poet; the seer. This is reserved for those who obtained the Vedas and gave them to us.

Nārāyaṇa        Ᾱpo nārā iti proktā āpo vai narasūnavah.  Tā yad asyāyanam pūrvam tena nārāyaṇa smrutah.   Two meanings. Nāra means water; it also means human. He is also the source from which we came (ayanam means abode)

OM (Pranav mantra) is so called because akārō viṣṇuh uddhiṣto, ukārastu maheśvarah, makārastu smrutho brahma, praṇavatu trayātmikah

Pragna is a natural state in that it is in this state we are aware of all the other states – namely awake (vaishvanara) and dream (taijasa). Pragna is the general (   ) which functions as a particular (visesha) in the other two states.  It is also called Ishvara (in the Yoga or Nyaya) or Atman (advaita) or Antaryamin (visishtadvaitam). In the advaita system it is the material and the efficient cause of this universe. Chit is the perceiving consciousness. Buddhi is the content or the object of this perceiving consciousness.

Prāṇa  Prakarṣena aṇah iti     because it is an excellent breath, life itself

Pratyaksha is the direct perception of particular and/or inference and related to physical things and mental objects.
Purāṇa is socalled because pura api nava iti though it is old, it is new

Puruṣa is so called because sarvāsu pūrṣu puriśayah iti, one who dwells in all bodies (this is from Brhadāraṇyaka Upanishad 2:5:18)

Riṣi denotes a poet; the seer. This is reserved for those who obtained the Vedas and gave them to us.

Rudra is so called because rjam drāvayati, He drives away suffering; or rōdayati, He makes us cry.

Ramā is one who makes you happy, ramayati iti.

Stobha are special sounds/mantra uttered in Sāma veda.    e (for invocation), ō hau (rpresent Vāsudeva), him (represent prajāpati) and (food).

             These are shortened forms of mantras for convenience of recitation and have symbolic meanings. There are 13 of them. Hā ū stand for Earth (prithvi), hā ī (vāyu, air), a ya (chandra, moon), ī ha ( jīvātman, Self), ī (agni, fire), u (sun, āditya), e (invocation), ō hau (Vāsudeva), him ( prajāpati) and (food, annam), hu (indeterminate), vāk ( virāt) and svarah (prāṇa).

Also, the word Swaaha is used during homa/yagna when offering oblations to the devāa thru agni (fire). The word swadha is used when the offering is to ancestors.

Sūtra means a thread, in simple meaning. Figuratively, it means the material cause of the universe, just as the thread is the material cause of a piece of cloth. This meaning is implied in slokā’s which describe the process of creation in terms of spider weaving its abode out of itself and taking it back. 

            Sūtra also means aphorisms. They are cryptic statements which condense plenty of meaning in as few words as possible in order to facilitate memorization and recall. Since they are cryptic, they need explanation (bhaṣya). This, in turn, leads to different explanations for the same statement.

            It is also used to name sacred and philosophical texts. The word grantha means a condensation of an elaborate treatise. Sutra is tighter than that. In these texts the word thread (sutra) is in relations to Brahman, and signifies one of three things:  1. Holds together the Universe, as a thread holds together a string of pearls; 2.is inherent in the universe, weaved into it just as threads are weaved into clothes and 3. The Universe comes out of Brahman and receded into Him, just like the thread of a spider which comes out of its mouth.

Sutra is defined as :    alpaksharam asamdhigdham saaratah vishwathomukham

                                                Asthobham anavadyam cha sutram sutravidho vidhuh

            Finally, sūtra also stands for Mahat or Cosmic Energy (energy portion of the material cause) and therefore often equated with prāṇa, hiraṇyagarbha, sūtratma, and vāyu. Mahat also stands for buddhi.

Vāsudeva        because vasati, vāsayati  lives and makes it live (sarvabhūtativāsah – lives in every creature)

Vishnu so called because viṣ vyāpane (He expands into)

Vyāsa is so called because he categorized the Vedas Vivāsa vedān yasmāt sa vyāsa iti smrti

Yantra so called because yamati trāyate iti (protects by containing within). This includes geographic designs of various shapes such as Mandala, Chakra etc.

Yōga so called because the root word is yuj which means to unite (the individual with the universal). It is defined by Patanjali as chitta vritti nirōdhah meaning that it is control of the mental activities. In Karma yōga, however, yōga is defined as samatvam yōga uccyate (Bhagvat Gīta 2:48) which translates to “Equanimity is yōga”