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Sunday, September 14, 2014

Categories and Definitions in Sanskrit - Continued


Ṣadānga – six limbs of the Vaida’s - Śikṣā ( grammar of alphabets), vyākaraṇa (grammar of words), chandas (meter), niruktam (meaning and etymology), jyōthiṣam (astrology), kalpam (procedural)
Ṣaddhvā – six ways of knowing the spiritual- through alphabets, words, meaning of words, mantra, parts of the Universe, basic elements and Universe.

Ṣad Īti – six calamities or afflictions - ativrṣti (excess rain), anāvrṣti (no rain), śalabha (locust), mūṣka (rats, mouse), śuka (parrots) and pratyāsanna (foreign invasion)

 Ṣad vikāra of created objects are  Jāyate (born), asti (exists, is), vardhate (grows), vipariṇīmate (develops), kṣhīyate (decreases) and naśyate (perishes)
Six duties of a Brahmin are adyayana (learning scriptures), adyāpanam (teaching scriptures), yajanam ( begging for food), yājanam (giving food), dānam (charity) and pratigraham (?)
Six seasons (rtu) In India the seasons are divided into 6, not 4. They are vasanta (spring), grīṣma (summer), varṣa (rainy), sarad (autumn),  hemanta (cloudy), śiśir (winter)
Sapta riṣi - Bhrugu, Mārīci, Atri, Ᾱngīrasa, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu. (some replace Bhrugu with Vasiṣta).  These riṣi’s vary with each manvantara
Sapta dhatavah - rasa, srunga, māmasa, meda, asthi, majja, śukra ( some add three more, they are keśa, tvak and snyu. (snyu, is tendon, as is sinew in English)
Sapta lōka - bhū, bhuvah, svah, ahah, janah, tapah, satyam
Aṣtānga namaskāram  -  During prostration in front of the deity and elders, for men eight parts of the body are to touch the ground. They are dōrbhyām padbhyām jānubhyām urasā śirasā druśā, manasā vacasā ca iti prṇāmō Aṣtānga īritah. They are respectively, shoulders, feet, knees, chest, head, sight, mind and lips or mouth . A variation uses the words pāṇibhyām for dōrbhyām, and dhiyā for manasā. For women this is substituted with five parts touching the ground. The parts omitted are shoulders, chest and mouth.
Navāvasthā (nine states of the body) are niṣeka (conception), garbha (pregnancy), janma (birth), bālya (infancy), kaumāra (childhood, yauvana (youth), madhyam (middle age), jarā (decay) and mrithyu (death) (Uddhava Gita 17:46)
Navabhakti vidānam (nine ways of showing devotion, worship) are śravaṇa (hearing the Lord’s name and stories), kīrtana (singing His glory and name), smaraṇa (remembering Him, always), pādasaivana (serving at His feet), arcana (special method in which one repeats His name and offer flowers at his feet), dāsya (becoming His slave), vandana (thanking Him, expressing gratitude), sakhya (being His friend) and ātmanivaidana (surrendering to Him).
Navarasa (Nine expression of moods in dance and drama) include śrngāram (amorous), bhībhatsam (disgust), rōṣa or raudra (anger), vismaya (surprise), vīram (Courage), bhayam (fear), hāsyam (humor), śokam (sadness) and śāntam (peace). But, the original treatise of Bharata listed only eight, and śāntam was not in that list
Yama ( observances based on self control, control of the senses, abstaining from; these are Passive). According to Patanajali, there are five. They are ahimsa  (non-injury), satya (truth) asteya  (nonstealing), brahmacarya (celibacy) and aparigraha (nonpossession)
     In another definition, 10 items are included. They are: brahmacaryam dayā kṣānti dānam satyam akalkatā: ahimsa asteyam mādurye dama ca iti yamā smrutāh.  (celibacy, compassion, forbearance charity truth-telling honesty non-injury non-stealing kind speech and self-restraint (calm)
Niyama (restraint, vow, voluntary, not obligatory, self-imposed, externally assisted; these need Active participation) They are 10 in number, as listed in Śoucam ijya tapō dānam svādyāya upasta nigrahah:  vratam, mounam, upvāsam ca snānam ca niyamā daśa.  They are (in order) Purity, worship, charity, education, control of the mind, vow or observance, silence, day of food intake/fasting and holy bath.
            Another list from Uddhava gita (12:34-35) includes: cleanliness, bathing and sipping of water before functions (called ācamanam), performance of fire-oblations, straightforwardness, visiting holy places, repetition of mantra (japa), avoidance of things not to be touched, looking upon all beings as Brahman, and control of mind, speech and bodily actions.
            However, the only five Niyama’s are suggested in Patanjali yoga śāstra in preparation for meditation/rāja yōga are: purity, contentment, austerity, learning and devotion (to pure knowledge).  

Twelve Ᾱditya are Gods of Rg Vaida.  Dhatā rudrō yamā mitrō varuṇah sūrya aiva ca
                                                     Bhagō vivasvān pūṣa ca savitā daśmah (only 10, two more added later, they are Aikādaśh tvaṣtā viṣṇu dvāadaśa ucyatai.

Twelve dharmapatni - Kīrti (fame), Śri (fortune), Vāk (speech), Puṣṭi (healthy body), Śraddha (faith), Kriyā (action), Lajjā (shame?), Mati (understanding), Kṣamā (forgiveness), Smriti (memory), Maidha (intellect) and Dhruti (courage)
Twelve names of Viṣṇu (dvādaśa nāma) are keśva, nārāyaṇa, mādava, gōvinda, viṣṇu, madhusūdana, trivikrama, vāmana, śridara, hriṣīkesa, padmanabha, dāmodhara
Fourteen Manu’s are in sequence:     Svāyambhu, Svārociṣa, Auttami, Tāmasi, Raivata, Cākṣusa, Vaivasvata (current Manu). Yet to come, Sāvarṇi, dakṣa sāvarṇi, brahma sāvarṇi, dharma sāvarṇi, rudra sāvarṇi, deva sāvarṇi and Indra sāvarṇi
Fourteen parts of Vedas         Angāni vaidah catvāro mīmasa nyaya vistarah
                                                Purāṇam dharmaśāstram ca vidyā hi gatā caturdasah

            Four vedās which includes Rg, yajur, sāma,athrva.  Six vedāngās include sīkṣa, vyākarana, chandas, nirukta, jyōtiṣam and kalpa.  Purāṇam, dharmaśāstram, mīmasa and nyaya make fourteen.

Mōkṣa is of 5 kinds: sālōkyam (in sight), sāmībhyam (nearby), sārūpyam (in form), sāyujyam (union) and nirvāṇa (no residue left)

Ratnam (precious stones) are  padmarāgam (ruby), vaiḍuryam (lapis lazuli), puṣparāgam (topaz), mauktikam (pearl), indranalaka (blue sapphire), pravālakam (coral), karketakam (?) and marakatam (emerald or Beryl)

 

 

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