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Friday, May 25, 2018

Where Lakshmi resides - Maha Bharata series 77


In Book 12, Section 227 and forwards, Goddess Shri appears before Indra and Narada. We are given several names for Her, including Padma, Bhuti, and Lakshmi. In this section, Lakshmi is equated with Brahman, the Supreme. She is Immutable, Intelligence, Affluence and Victory. She says that she was associated with the Daityas and Danavas, as long as they followed virtuous ways. Now, that they have lost those virtues, She is leaving them.

The virtues Lakshmi associates with include piety, faith, compassion, respecting elders and ancestors, non-injury (ahimsa) and truth-telling. The list of items included in the behavior of people who have left virtues is given in Section 221 of the Sanskrit version and Section 228 in the English version. This includes greed, lack of respect for elders and those with wisdom, respect for those who do not deserve it, not caring for the children and the aged etc., and ends with “transgression   of all boundaries and restraints”. 

The list is long and, it is frightening to find all the weaknesses of modern life mentioned in that list. For example, Lakshmi says that “the Danavas have last their virtues and morality; have been swayed by lust and wrath; and in their world, persons of inferior attainments were showing animosities towards seniors and those with superior qualifications, and were ridiculing and laughing at them; those amassing great wealth by doing unrighteous and censurable deeds were being held in high esteem; sons were bossing over their parents, and wives dominated over their husbands; there was no respect for mothers, fathers, aged seniors, preceptors, guests, and guides for their status; people did not bring up their own offspring with affection but began to abandon them; people appropriated wealth to their own use shamelessly without offering anything to the ancestors, the gods, guests, and reverend seniors; disputes and quarrels raged  in every house, day and night; Both, those that deserved respect and those that deserved no respect, were treated equally”.  

Lakshmi continues: “Further, they (danavas) began to indulge in sports and diversions in which their women were dressed as men and their men as women. When friends sought help, they were only frustrated more. Traders and merchants were interested only in taking the wealth of others. Teachers began treating disciples as friendly companions. Fathers and mothers were worn out with work, and in old age, were forced to beg for their food from their own children. Daughters-in-law, in the presence of their husbands' mothers and fathers, lectured to their husband's and rebuked them. Victims of crimes could not expect any help but only laughter and mockery. They have transgressed all bounds and restraints. Because of all of these and other indications of wicked conduct and the reversal of their former nature, I decided not to live among them any more and have come to you”. 

Did Vyasa and our ancestors know what was coming? If their prophecy is correct, Goddess Lakshmi must be getting ready to leave us also soon!

In another list, Goddess Lakshmi lists eight Lakshmi’s who live with the righteous. This list includes Lakshmi of Hope, Faith, Intelligence, Contentment, Success, Advancement, Forgiveness and Jaya (Victory). But this list does NOT correspond to the traditional Ashtalakshmi.

1. Aadi-Lakshmi (The Primeval  or the Great) or Maha Lakshmi
2. Dhana-Lakshmi or Aishwarya Lakshmi (The Goddess of Prosperity and Wealth)
3. Dhaanya-Lakshmi (Goddess of Food grains)
4. Gaja-Lakshmi (The Elephant Goddess)
5. Santana-Lakshmi (The Goddess of Progeny)
6. Veera-Lakshmi or Dhairya Lakshmi (The Goddess of Valor and Courage)
7. Vidya-Lakshmi (The Goddess of Knowledge)
8. Vijaya-Lakshmi or Jaya Lakshmi (The Goddess of Victory)

Section 242 gives a detailed description of how a disciple should behave towards his teacher during gurukula vasam (living with the preceptor). Many of our teachers still demand the kind of obedience from their students as described in this section. Some of the expectations are demeaning and dehumanizing. I do not know how these ideas developed. I am all for respect to our teachers. But, that does not mean that the teachers can treat a student like a slave or expect blind obedience.  

This is another opportunity for me to point out how all of us hang on to some areas of the scriptures and ignore others. The same teachers who demand blind obedience and treat students not too kindly forget the liberal minds of our great masters and acharyas.  The great masters such as Yagnavalkya and Pippalada answered only when asked and appropriate to the level of the student’s ability. They did not demand that the students follow blindly what they were told. In Gita, Krishna asks Arjuna to reflect on what he was told and act appropriately. In Yoga Vasishta, Vasishta tells Rama to reflect and act. Buddha clearly stated that the pupils should think on their own and act.

Monday, May 21, 2018

Friend or Foe? - Maha Bharata Series 76


I missed one earlier section (138) from Book 12. I am glad I found it. This is a story of a mouse, a cat, a mongoose and an owl, as told by Bhishma in response to a question by Yudhishtra on how a king should behave when faced with multiple enemies. The conversation between the mouse and the cat is full of wisdom on friendship in general, in addition to the answer for the primary question.

The section starts with Bhishma saying that circumstances decide the course of events in life and it is difficult to advice what to do and what not to do. A friend may become a foe and a foe may become a friend.  Planning for the future and presence of mind are needed for a successful life. He tells the story of three fish one of which is prudent and thinks ahead, one has presence of mind and one is a procrastinator. As one can guess the procrastinator dies and the other two escape. The episode ends with a statement that in addition to foresight and presence of mind, one must avail oneself of means for accomplishment of one’s goals and know the proper place and time for action.

In the main story, a cat and a mouse live in the same tree -the cat living in the branches where he gets a full catch of birds for food and the mouse lives in a hole at the bottom of the tree.  One day the cat is caught in a hunter’s net. The mouse realizing that the cat is caught in the net moves around freely in search of food. He finds meat spread by the hunter as a lure and starts eating. He forgets that he is too close to the net in which the cat is trapped and becomes careless. The mouse suddenly notices that a mongoose has arrived on the scene and is looking at the mouse as food for the day. At the same time, the mouse also notices an owl on the branch of a tree ready to pounce on him.

The mouse is now in danger of attack by two enemies – the mongoose and the owl. The cat is an enemy too but he is in trouble himself. So, the mouse thinks: “ A wise person should never sink in despair and lose one’s wit when faced with danger. He must save his life by effort and intelligence. I am surrounded by three enemies. In this situation my only refuge is this cat, even though he is my natural enemy. It is best to make friends with him because he is also in imminent danger of being caught by the hunter. He may be amenable to counsel for his own good. If I make him understand his own interest in helping me, he may make peace with me. Besides, a person when faced with a stronger person should seek peace even with an enemy. It is better to have a fool for a friend than have a learned person as an enemy. The cat is probably foolish and will fall for my words; but for the present I will consider him an intelligent foe. After all he knows he is in danger”.  

The mouse points out to the cat that he is in danger of being attacked by the mongoose and the owl if he moves towards his hole and is afraid. He is aware that once the hunter comes, the cat’s life will also be in danger. He says: “I have an idea so both of us can escape. You cannot cut through the net. But, I have sharp teeth and can cut the net, so you can escape. I will act as you friend but, you should promise not to attack me once you are free. After all, both of us have lived in this tree for a long time. I have to trust you and get near you and be with you so that the mongoose and the owl will not kill me. It is said that he on whom no one places trust and he who never trusts anyone are not wise. This is a proper time for an understanding between us. I want you to live and hope you will want me to live. Can I trust you not to kill me? This is a good time for us to trust each other and act”.

The cat agrees and says: “Through your grace I have got back my life. I will always be your disciple and obey your commands forever. A person returning a favor never becomes equal to the person that did good in the first instance. The former acts to repay services received. The latter, however, acted without any such motive. Let us be friends. Come quickly to me”. The mouse says that he need to creep under the cat’s belly so that the mongoose and owl will know they have no chance of getting near him and the cat agrees. The mouse creeps under the cat’s belly and the mongoose and the owl go away.

The mouse starts to cut the net but very slowly. He does not want to finish the job till the proper time. The cat gets angry and asks why he is delaying. The mouse replies: “Do not fear. Do not be impatient, O friend! I will keep my promise. We know the requirements of time. An act done at the proper time succeeds; and an act done at an improper time leads to calamity.  If I let you free at an improper time, I will be afraid. Therefore, the proper time is when I see the hunter approach because at that time both of us will be in a state of fear. As soon as I see him, I shall cut the strings. You will run and climb the tree at once and will not think of anything else except your safety. And I will run to my hole”.

The cat who had kept his own part of the covenant, feels betrayed and says: “I saved you from danger promptly. Now you should do the same for me by cutting the net quickly before the hunter comes. If I have hurt you in the past, please forget and forgive. I hope you are not remembering our former hostility and trying to deceive me. If you do, I will get back sooner or later”.

The mouse replied: “Oh, my friend, I have heard you. I know what your objective is. Listen to my point of view. That friendship which is based and maintained on fear must be maintained with great caution. After making a deal with a stronger individual one has to be cautious so he does not get injured. Nobody is any body’s friend. Nobody is anybody’s foe. People become friends or foes based purely on self-interest. It is best to leave some part of the promise unfulfilled till the time comes. If I cut the net just when the hunter comes you will run away to save your own life. That is the only way I can be sure of my life. As you can see I have cut most of the net. There is only one more spot to cut. I will cut it as soon as I see the hunter approaching”.

As promised the mouse cuts the nest with his teeth as soon as the hunter’s head is seen at a distance, and both escape – the mouse to his hole and the cat runs up the tree before the hunter gets close.

The cat wants to keep his promise of friendship. He says he is grateful to the mouse for his help and says that he and his family will always honor him. He says: You saved my life. I want to be friends with you. You can trust me” and invites the mouse to come up and visit him. The mouse thought and said: “Friends and foes should be properly studied. There is no such thing as friend or a foe. Forces of circumstances dictate who become friends and who become foes. Interests and gains are important in these relationships. Therefore, there is no place for blind trust. One should not trust who is undeserving of trust. One should not place too much trust on one worthy of trust either.  Our species are natural enemies. You and I became friends forced by our common plight. You may keep your promise. But, your family members have no reason to offer the same safety for me. Therefore, I decline your invitation”.

And further, “A person becomes important for a purpose he serves. Our affection started because of a sufficient cause. That cause is not present any more. You understand your interest and I understand mine. You are more powerful than me. Guided by my self-interest I prefer to stay where I am safe. You do likewise and keep away from the hunter”. As soon as he heard the name of the hunter, the cat got frightened and ran away to a distance place! The mouse also went to a different place to live. 

Bhishma continued: “The mouse and the cat owed their escape to their reliance upon each other's services. When two persons who were once enemies make peace with each other, it is certain that each of them will try to win over the other. It is better to be wise and be careful.  In fear, one should seem to be fearless, and while really mistrusting others one should seem to be trustful. When the time comes,  one should make peace with an enemy; and when the time comes, one should wage war with even a friend. If one acts like a man in fear before the cause of fear arrives, one is never filled with fear when it actually arrives. A person who always acts with fearlessness, causes great fear in others.  'Do not be afraid' is an useless advice. It is fear that should move a wise person to understand his weakness and seek the advice of wise and experienced men. For these reasons, one should, when in fear, seem to be fearless, and when mistrusting (others) should seem to be trustful. But never be untruthful. At a time of grave danger, make peace with a powerful foe. But, do not trust the foe again once you gain your purpose”.


Friday, May 11, 2018

Yagna, japa or dhyana? - Maha Bharata series 75



Book 12, Section 201 (section 194, in the Sanskrit version) deals with this question. It starts with this beautiful definition of happiness and misery.

    यद यत परियं यस्य सुखं तद आहुस; तद एव दुःखं परवदन्त्य अनिष्टम
    
इष्टं मे सयाद इतरच सयाद; एतत कृते कर्म विधिः परवृत्तः
    
इष्टं तव अनिष्टं मां भजेतेत्य; एतत कृते जञानविधिः परवृत्तः
 
कामात्मकाश छन्दसि कर्मयॊगा; एभिर विमुक्तः परम अश्नुवीत

“Happiness is what is agreeable. Misery is what is not agreeable.”

People who believe that happiness is transient do not spend energy following it. They avoid it by turning to pursuing knowledge. Yagna (sacrifice), japa (recitation) are activities connected with acquisition of objects of desire and they lead only to hell. (The commentator says that hell is not a real place, but the abodes of the sun and the moon and the stars from which one has to be reborn into this world). However, yagna and recitation and penance can be used as a preparation for meditation and Brahmagnana. This is the view expressed later by Adi Sankara. (The implication is that dhyana is a superior path. But other paths may be followed to prepare the mind for dhayana)

Japa, yagna, dana, dharma and dhyana are the five methods for brahmangnana. All are colored by one’s nature whether it is sattva, rajas or tamas.  But, all except dhyana are often performed with a desire for some result. All acts done without attachment to the fruits of action is preferable. (This is Gita’s main message.) All such outward directed acts give temporary happiness. For eternal happiness, one has to let go of attachment to the fruits of action. Even better, let go of desire and anger.

During dhyana, one withdraws the sense organs from the sense objects and also withdraws the mind from the sense organs and succeeds in beholding his own real Self as Brahman. 

The definition of Brahman includes:    
 
अशब्दम अस्पर्शम अरूपवच
    
अग्राह्यम अव्यक्तम अवर्णम एकं; पञ्च परकारं ससृजे परजानाम
 
सत्री पुमान वापि नपुंसकं ; सन चासत सद असच तन
    
पश्यन्ति यद बरह्मविदॊ मनुष्यास; तद अक्षरं कषरतीति विद्धि

He (IT), the One exists in His (Its) own nature, unaffected by attributes and qualities. It cannot be touched or named; does not have a form or color. It cannot be grasped. (Some of these definitions come from discussions in the next chapter)

The evolution of the five elements (panca bhuta) are given in Section 202 (Sanskrit 195) as follows. This is part of Samkhya philosophy.
     
अक्षरात खं ततॊ वायुर वायॊर जयॊतिस ततॊ जलम
     
जलात परसूता जगती जगत्यां जायते जगत
  
इमे शरीरैर जलम एव गत्वा; जलाच तेजः पवनॊ ऽनतरिक्षम
     
खाद वै निवर्तन्ति नभाविनस ते; ये भाविनस ते परम आप्नुवन्ति

The translation: Space comes out of the Supreme, the Undecaying. Air comes out of Space; Fire comes out of Air; Water comes out of Air; Earth (universe) comes out of Water. Everything in this universe follow.

During dissolution, the body (earth) goes into water; water into fire; Fire into Air; Air into Space. The emancipated ones do not return from Space (They reach Brahman)

Tuesday, May 8, 2018

Yuga cycles and Kaala (Time) - Maha Bharata series 74


Book 12, Section 201 and 203 
Bhishma recounts the beginning of the cycles of Yuga with Supreme Vishnu in repose and the Brahma of the cycle coming from the lotus emanating from Vishnu’s navel. This is the same as told in the beginning (Book 1) with more details. The repetition is probably meant to establish Vishnu at the center of worship. The population of the earth by the seven rishis, the parajaptis,  humans, asuras and animals is recounted.

It is stated  that all the Vedas return back to the Supreme (Vishnu, as told here) at the end of the four yugas. They reappear at the beginning of the next cycle and captured by the rishis to be preserved and passed on. In this sequence, we are told that Brhaspati receives the Vedas, Sukra receives the Dharma teachings, Narada gets the texts on music, Bharadwaja gets the texts on arms and warfare and Atri gets the medical texts.

In another section, there is a definition of Brahmacharya as a state in which one withdraws from all senses and sense-objects and dwells in the mind only. To reach that state, one should not have any contact with women since, according to the text, women are full of passion.  Also. according to the text, the man's “seeds” are floating all over the body through thousands of channels (naadi) and are the results of desire.
The subject of renunciation is called Samyagradha and is dealt with in Section 219. It says that one cannot attain tranquility without renunciation. The purpose of Vedic sacrifices and other rites is for renunciation of wealth and other possessions. Vows and fasts of diverse kinds are meant to help with self-restraint and renunciation of enjoyments. Yoga and penance (tapas) are for renunciation of pleasure and happiness. Renunciation, however, of everything, is the highest kind of renunciation.

When asked whether fasting is a penance, Bhishma says that it is not. But, self-restraint (acts and letting go of results) and compassion are. He also defines vegetarianism as not eating meat that had not been offered as a sacrifice.

In section 222, the discussion between Prahlada and Indra was likely influenced by Buddhist teachings. In this passage, Prahlada clearly speaks of impermanence. He also says that all of us have “good” and “bad”qualities. In Buddhism they mention 51 qualities which are present in all of us. However, Prahlada says that Soul is different from the body. Buddhists deny the existence of separate self or atman or soul.

Another important episode with a conversation between Vali and Indra is given in Section 224 (English version). Vali is living alone as a recluse and in the “form” of an ass. Indra teases and taunts him for his “low” state. Vali, an asura, former king of the Danavas asks Indra not to be haughty and proud since he will also fall from his high state in course of time.

 This discourse equates time (kaala) with Brahman (not Brahma, the creator god). It says that Time rules everything in this universe, including the gods and asuras. Our conditions are determined by time and everything in this world are transient. People in high position come down over time and those in low position get to a higher position in course of time. Knowing this, there is no need to be sad or happy about the course of events.

The idea that time controls everything and therefore we can do nothing seems to be the message. Combined with the concept of karma, it is easy to fall into fatalism.


Saturday, April 28, 2018

Yama and Mrtyu - Maha Bharata series 73


Book 12, 197 (S 189) uses the word jaapaka (one who recites japa) for one who recites mantras. He is compared to one who meditates.  The discussion also suggests that meditation is favored over reciting mantras. But neither of them will be useful if one does not control the senses and the mind and if done purely as a ritual without full understanding of the meaning and the purpose. The purpose is merger of the mind with the Brahman.

The word Vedanta is used here (Section 189). This is probably one of the earliest use of this word. But, since the word Vedanta came into common use after Adi Sankara, my guess is that the word in this context means Upanishads, which come at the end of the Vedas

The words vicara, vitarka and viveka are used in a sentence in a beautiful manner. These words mean doubts (or inquiry, reflection or consideration), argumentation (or discussion) and wisdom respectively. These are the proper steps to critical thinking.
In the Buddhist literature it is said that there are seven steps between the time a thought appears in our minds and the time it takes deep roots, positive or negative (vicara). The first step in silence meditation is to let go of the thought as soon as it shows up. This is different from the Vipassana (Insight) meditation and Ramana's idea of tracking down the "i". 

The word Yama may mean self-restraint or any observance. It also stands for the God of Death. The most original meaning seems to be twin-born or forming a pair. In that sense the word may stand for Nakula and Sahadeva or the Ashwin brothers. The other pair is Yama (the God of Death) who rules the abode of the pitrs and his twin sister Yamini. Interestingly, Yama’s half- brother is the seventh Manu, the current Manu.

The word Mrtyu also stands sometimes for death and used interchangeably with the word Yama. Mrtyu is more specifically the God of diseases. Several kinds of death are enumerated due to 100 different causes such as accidents and specific diseases and, also due to natural causes.

It is interesting that in this story, the God of Death, the God of Diseases and Time come together. 

A passage in Book 12, Section 195 says:

यथा कश चित सुकृतैर मनुष्यः; शुभाशुभं पराप्नुते ऽथाविरॊधात
     
एवं शरीरेषु शुभाशुभेषु; सवकर्मजैर जञानम इदं निबद्धम

This means that just as fruits of actions, happiness and misery reside in a material body although they are formless, so does Knowledge although it is not material. Is this not samavaya or the concept of inherence of the Vaiseshika system?  (Please see post on March 3, 2016 on Life and Awareness where I suggest that the concepts of diseases and soul can also be explained with this analogy)




Friday, April 20, 2018

Pancha Prana - Maha Bharatha Series 72


Since I posted the earlier blog I realized that I had inadvertently left out some portions of the conversation between Bhrigu and Bharadwaja. Here they are.

There are interesting discussions on the theory of life, soul, rebirth and the universe based on the Samkhya philosophy. In one of them it is said that the space is vast, infinite and its limits cannot be ascertained. The rays of the Sun and the Moon cannot reach beyond the range of their rays and there are other luminary objects in those regions. They are also as bright as the sun. Even if it were possible to ascertain the limits of Space, it will never be possible to set limits to That which is limitless and infinite (Brahman and Manasa).

Bharadwaja asks: “If it is the air (wind) that keeps us breathing and moving, life seems to be worth little.  If it is the fire that digests our food, life is worth little. When an animal dies we cannot see “life leaving” it. Only the breathing stops and the warmth goes out. How can you say that there is life in this body? And when it leaves, where does it go? After it has left what does it see, hear and know? How will a person who dies and has his body eaten by animals and birds, who got burnt or fell off a mountain come back to life? When a plant dies, it dies. Only the seeds can survive and grow. All of this universe is the result of seeds in succession.”

Bhrigu disagrees, of course. He goes into the well-known concept of the soul (Jeevan, same as Atman when identified with a single body) surviving after the death of the physical body and taking rebirths to experience the result of Karma. He says that the Atman merges with the Brahman after several re-births and on realizing the non-duality of the universe. He says that the mind is also made of five elements and “the one internal Soul sustains the body”. Soul is a non-corporeal entity which controls all functions and there is no more breath or heat when it leaves the body. The statements use the words “life”, “breath” and “soul” interchangeably and thus are confusing.

That Soul is also called “creator Brahman”. When it is connected with the body, it is called Keshtragna. When it is free from the attributes of the body and flesh It is known as Paramatman or Supreme Soul. That Soul has consciousness and has attributes of life when connected with a living body. There is no death of the soul when the body dies. All these are standard teachings of the tradition; one may say standard dogmas.

It is not surprising that the definitions of prana, soul, life, self and consciousness are vague and mixed up. For example, prana is said to be the universal soul, the eternal being, the mind, the intellect and consciousness of all creatures. The idea of subtle channels called nadi seems to be based on a remark in one chapter which says that numerous subsidiary channels branch out from the gut (?chest).

When Bharadwaja asks how the five elements (panchabootha) maintain life and movement, Brighu answers as follows: “Prana (air or breath) and the heat (fire, energy) both of which reside in the head (?brain) are responsible together for all the movements and exertions of lives. Prana or breath makes it possible for creatures to move. Vyana gives them strength for action. Apana moves downwards taking away the waste. Samana resides in the “heart”. Udana moves upwards causing one to speak and eructate. Heat residing in the head protects the body”.




Sunday, April 15, 2018

Bhrigu and Bharadwaja - Maha Bharatha Series 71


Shanti Parva is the 12th book in Maha Bharata and is the longest of the 18 chapters. The subjects covered include duties of a king and of the subjects, dharma, justice, wealth, desires and their effects on people and moksha (emancipation from the cycle of birth and death).  In Sections 170-171 there are comments made by Sampaka (Section 170 and 171) on happiness and sorrow and a treatise on Desire and Greed by Manki. In this we find a surprising definition of destiny as nothing but combination of circumstances. 
Basic principles of the Samkhya system are brought out in the form of a discussion between Brigu and Bharadwaja.  Other discussions on destiny, dharma, justice, wealth and moksha are unusually long and have been commented on elsewhere. In this essay I wish to bring out one section on happiness.
Bhrigu says that all of us seek happiness which is an attribute of the Atman itself. Both virtue and wealth are used to attain happiness, both physical and mental. Teachings of vedas are aimed at pointing out ways to attain happiness in this world and in the other world.
Bharadwaja disagrees and asks, “if it is so, why is it that Rishis do not seek something higher, Brahma the Creator lives a life of brahmacharya (celibacy) and Lord Shiva destroyed Kama the deity of desire and love. Obviously, happiness is not of that importance to high-souled individuals”. He continues that “ there are two kinds of consequences to human actions, one from good acts leading to happiness and another leading to sorrow from sinful acts”.
Bhrigu says that ‘people who do not speak truth and perform unrighteous acts suffer mentally and physically in this life and in the hereafter. Those who never experience these sufferings know what happiness is. In heaven there is no hunger or thirst or suffering and there is only happiness. In hell there is only misery. In this world, there is both misery and happiness. One should therefore seek happiness by virtuous acts”.