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Sunday, September 7, 2014

Categories and Definitions in Sanskrit - continued


Deva:   In one system, there are said to be 33 gods, rather “deva”s. They are: Vasu (8), Rudra (11), Ᾱditya (12) (this list included the Sun and Vishnu), Viśvādeva (2).  In another system, there were 9 groups, with a total of 241. This list includes: Ᾱditya (12), Viśvādeva (13), vasu (8), duṣita (36), Ᾱpāswara (64), Mārut (49), rudra (11), Mahārāyar (36), satyar (12). There are other systems with 333 and 330 million counts. No wonder, the westerners were flabbergasted when they encountered these ideas. They are still flabbergasted, when we say that Hindus worship several Gods but believe that there is only ONE SUPREME. 

Devayonisañaka (Demigods) Gandarva – celestial musician

                                                Apsaras – celestial damsels

                                                Nāga – face of a man and tail of a serpent (non-poisonous snake); poisonous snake is called sarpam

                                                Siddha – a sage; a seer; one who has attained siddha (look under siddha for its eight components)

                                                cāraṇa – celestial singer

                                                guhyaka – attendant of Kubera, guardian of heavenly treasures

                                                yakṣa – attendants of Kubera

            Here is a list of Gods and semi-gods from Udhhava Gita Chapter 9: Sloka 5-6:

            Daiva, asura, guhyaka, siddha, gandharva, vidyādara, cāraṇa, kinnara, nāga, rākṣasa, and kimpuruṣa.     

Kāla: (Time) is divided as follows:  1 day = 24 hours (see related Latin derivatives such as  hōra and horoscope)   A day is made of 8 yāma,
                                                            1 yāma is made of 6 muhūrta

                                                            1 muhūrta is 2 nādi (30 minutes)

                                                            1 nādi is 15 laghu (15 minutes)

                                                            1 laghu is 15 kāṣṭam (1 minute)

                                                            1 kāṣṭam is 5 kṣaṇam (4 seconds)

                                                            1 kṣaṇam is 3 nimesham (4/5 second)

                                                            1 nimesham is 3 lavam (4/15 or 0.26 second)

                                                            1 lavam is 3 vedam (0.09 second)

                                                            1 vedam is 100 triṣti (0.03 second)

             Another source (Manu śastra says that One nimisha is the time it takes for one blink of an eye; 18 such nimishas make a kāṣta, 30 kāṣta make one kalā, 30  kalā make one muhūrta and 30 muhūrta make one day 

Siddhi:          there are 8 siddhis. They are: aṇimā, mahimā, laghimā, prāpti, prākāmya, vaśitā, īśitā, kāmavasāyitvā. ( translated in sequence, they are: ability to become minute, become very big, to become light and levitate, to extend, to become irresistible, have self control, ability to rule and consummate all desires)
                        There is another list of siddhis which include:  free from old age, thirst, hunger and death; ability to hear from distance, ability to see from distance, move the body at the speed of the mind, ability to take any form one wishes, enter another’s body, die when one wishes, ability to take on the sports of Gods, have others obey commands, knowledge of present, past and the future, ability to read other’s mind, counteract the effects of fire, poison and a state in which no one can overcome.
Traya (means three, note the similarity to English three).
            trayī – stands for rg, yajur, sāma Vedas
            triguṇa – satva, rajo and tamo guṇa
            trikāla – past, present, future
            trivarga – darma, artha, kāma ( righteous life, wealth and desire)
            trimūrti – brahma, viṣṇu, śiva (creator, protector, dissolver)
            tridanda – control of organs, mind and self
            tāpatraya – suffering due to self (Ᾱdyātmikam), external things (Ᾱdibhautikam) and divine effects (Ᾱdidaivikam)
            trilōka – earth, middle and heaven
            triśarīra – stūla, sūkṣma, kāraṇa
            triguṇa – state of being awake, dream and dreamless sleep

Words have three powers:  abhidha (to be known), lakṣaṇa (sign or indicator) and vyanjana (denoting clearly)

Caturta  means 4
            Caturvaida – rg, yajur, sāma, atharva
            Catur antarāya – (impediments of the mind) – wandering (laya), vikṣhaipa (distracted), kaṣāya (full of passion and dull) and rasāvāda (attached to tastes and flavors)
            Catur varga – (four prameya or proofs) – Śruti (vedic text), partyakṣam (direct perception), anumānam (inference) and aithiham (tradition)
            Catur vyuha – Vāsudeva, samkarṣṇa, pradhyumna, aniruddha
Four methods of worship are based on Vaidīka, Vaikhānasa, Ᾱgama and Tantra 

Panca – means 5, note similarity to penta
            Pancabhūta – 5 elements of Ᾱkāśa (space), vāyu (wind,air), agni (fire), Ᾱapa (water) and prtvi (earth).
            Pancakrityam – sruṣti (creation), stithi (protection), layam (dissolution), tirodānam (covering) and anugraham (blessing)
            Pancha lakṢaṇam of Purāṇa (Five characteristics of an Epic or  Purāṇa are: sarga, anusarga, vamśa, manvantara and vamśānucaritam
            Pancabhaṇa (the bow with flowers in the hands of Lalita and Manmadan) five flowers are aravindam (lotus), aśoka, sūta (mango), navamalli (jasmine) and nīlotpalam.
            Pancayagñam – deva, pitru, manuṣ, bhūta and brahma (for the deities, the ancestors, for the humans or for Manu, for other lives and for Brahman respectively)
            Pancamahāpātakam (five great sins) are brhamhatti (killing a Brahmin), surāpānam (drinking liquor), svarṇasteyam (stealing), gurukalpadamanam (not ?)

Ṣaṣti – means 6.
            Ṣadūrmi – hunger, thirst, grief, delusion, decay and death
            Ṣadvarga/ripu – kāma (desire), krōda (anger), lobha (greed), mada (intoxicated, mad), mōha (delusion) and matsarya (jealousy),
            Ṣadkrma – adhyāpanam (learning), adhyayanam (practice of rituals), yajanam (beg for food), yājanam (performing sacrifice), (thathā)  dānam (charity), pratigraham (accepting what is given) ca iva ṣadkarmāṇi agrajanmanh.                           

           Ṣanmada - gāṇapatyam (worship of Ganeṣa), kaumāram (worship of Muruga), śāktam (worship of Goddess), sauram (worship of Sun), śaivam (worship of śiva)  and vaiṣṇavam (worship of Viṣṇu).  Śaivam may be pāśupatam, vīra, kāṣmīra and śaivasiddhāntam. Vaiṣṇavam may be pāncarātra, ekānti or vaikānasa.

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