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Friday, June 15, 2018

Non-injury (Ahimsa) as the foundation of Dharma - Maha Bharata series 80

In Book 12, Section 254 (Sanskrit) (section 261 and 262 in English) is the story of Jajali and Tuladhara. Jajali is a Brahmin ascetic who gets his lessons on virtue and wisdom from Tuladhara, a merchant or a Vaishya. The main message in this episode is that non-injury is the greatest virtue and the foundation of Sanatana Dharma. (Hinduism was known as Sanatana Dharma for millenia before western visitors came to India)

 Jajali performs all kinds of severe austerities, yogic meditation and beneficial acts. He comes to consider himself as the best in wisdom and virtue. Yet he keeps hearing that a village merchant by name Tuladhara is the one who knows what dharma is. Jajali goes to Varnasi to meet Tuladhara.

To digress a little, we grew up learning the name of this holy city as Benaras or Banaras. In fact, it is known by several names, each name referring to a smaller unit of the city in a concentric fashion. Kashi is the old name and refers to the entire region. Varanāsi is the region between the two rivers – Varanā and Asi. Avimukta is the name from Puranas, to indicate that Lord Shiva does not let go of this place even at the end of a Yuga. Then comes Antagraha, surrounding the Temple of Kasi Vishwanatha.

 To go back to the story of Jajali, while performing penance or noble acts, he is motivated by a desire to be the best in doing dharmic actions (desire). He entertains pride when he let birds build nest in his matted hair even as he stood still for years. Finally, he shows anger when he is told that Tuladhara is better at knowing what dharma is. Tuladhara knows all this and explains to Jajali that one has to let go of desire, pride and anger to be considered virtuous and wise.  

When asked by Jajali how Tuladara, a merchant is known for his virtues and wisdom Tuladara answers: “My actions are based on universal friendliness and beneficence to all creatures.  It is based on total harmlessness to all creatures or in case of absolute necessity upon a minimum of such harm. I am always engaged in the good of all creatures, in thought, word, and deed. I never quarrel with any one or favor any one. I never desire for anything. I look upon all things and all creatures with evenness of mind. My scales are perfectly even to all creatures. I neither praise nor blame the acts of others, viewing them as natural variety in the world, like the variety observable in the sky. I see no difference between a piece of stone and a lump of gold”.

Jajali continues: “I do not have any need for wealth or pleasure or enjoyments. When a person fears nothing and is not a source of fear for others, when he does not experience any desire or aversion for anything, he is then said to have attained Brahman”.

The main message of the discourse is that non-injury is the greatest virtue. The importance of not harming any creatures is emphasized and the slaughter of the cow and the bull are specifically condemned. He even criticizes the practice of restraining the bull by piercing its nose and passing a rope through it to use it for ploughing. May be this section was added after Buddha’s time.

Tuladhara says that in his scale no one is superior and no one is inferior. Everyone is equal (the word tula in Sanskrit means a scale). In Sanskrit it reads as: तुला मे सर्वभूतेषु समा तिष्ठति जाजले

He says: “I have no quarrel with anyone. I do not hate anyone. I do not desire anything. Gold and clay are equal to me. I am not afraid of anyone and no one is afraid of me. I accept variety of people with varieties of behavior because variety is the way of Nature. God manifests in variety”.

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