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Saturday, July 28, 2018

Devas and Humans are Inter-dependent - Maha Bharatha Series 85 (contd)


In one version, Narayana, (Brahman) creates seven rishis to uphold the Vedas. They follow Pravritti marga because they have to procreate and populate the earth. They are Marichi, Angirasa, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vasishta.

Narayana also created seven other rishis who were proficient in Samkhya and Yoga philosophies and followed the Nivritti marga. They are: Aniruddha, Sana, SanatSujata, Sanatkumara, Sanandana, Sanaka and Kapila.

Maha Bharata documents  Gnana marga (nivritti) and  Karma marga (pravritti). One can see the beginnings of Bhakti marga also because of the way Vishnu is elevated to the status of Narayana, a manifest part of the One Supreme Brahman.

In a subsequent section, there is a different version of the creation of creatures by Brahma and the way Narayana passed on the Vedas to all the rishis through Brahma (not Brahman). In this version, Brahma is born seven different times from Narayana’s breath, mouth, eyes, navel and ears. The Vedas get lost between each one of these origins of Brahma. In this description, three so-called “cults” are mentioned. They are Pancharatra, Vaikanasa and Satwaata. This is important because the current method of worship (agama?) of Vishnu is said to be Vaikanasa, the other two having disappeared.

Ancient Sanskrit texts classified all objects in this earth into two major classes:  sthavara (immobile) and jangama (mobile).  Immobile included jata (non-living such as rock) and jiva (living). One text in Mahabharata classifies living into 4 groups:  egg-born, womb-born, soil-born and plants. Padmapurana classifies all living entities into:  water-born, reptiles, birds, animals (pasu, mrga) and human (maanava). Plants and trees are also included. Mahabharata classifies plants under 6 categories – vrksha (tree), gulma (shrub), lata (creeper), talli ( same as creeper but with a thicker stem), tvakshra (bamboo) and truna (grass).

As I have mentioned elsewhere, one learns about many things about the ancient land and its geography, botany, culture and customs by reading sacred texts. Classification of living and non-living objects in this world and their sub-classification as noted above is a prime example.  This was millennia before Linneus started modern taxonomy.


Saturday, July 21, 2018

Devas and Humans are inter-dependent - Maha Bharatha series 85


We are still in Book 12 of Maha Bharatha. There are several passages on possible approaches to spiritual enlightenment in the later part of this book.  Two such approaches or paths are called Pravritti Marga and Nivritti Marga. Pravritti marga leads to conscious existence experiencing the fruits of action. This may be experiencing various kinds of pleasures in heaven  (called Vaikunta, if you are a Vaishnavite or Kailasa if you are a Shivite) or experience of suffering in hell. After enjoying the pleasures of heaven or suffering in hell, one has to come back to earth, if one follows Pravritti marga.

Nivritti marga leads to total liberation and emancipation. Nivritti marge leads to absorption into Brahman and therefore no rebirth.

As part of these discussions, Yudhistra asks why the devas (gods, angels) chose a life dependent on the sacrificial offerings of humans, instead of choosing complete emancipation. The answer is that they did not choose the Pravritti marga but, they were assigned Pravritti marga by Brahman.

In one version, it is said that the various devas including 11 Rudras and 12 Adityas came into existence out of Narayana. In this episode, Narayana declares himself to be the 12th son of Aditi. Thus, Vishnu who is originally mentioned in ancient texts as one of the Adityas, is made into a major god in Maha Bharata.

At one time when the oceans dried up, all the devas including Vishnu go to Brahman (not Brahma). He suggests that the devas must perform a sacrifice and offer it to Him. Devas cannot perform sacrifice in their world since they do not have the offerings such as plants, animals etc. They are available only on earth. However, when humans perform sacrifices to the devas there will be offerings. The devas should share part of those offerings given to them by humans with Brahman. In turn, Brahman will give each of the devas jurisdiction over specific parts of nature and of the human body. Brahman will also “ordain them to enjoy the fruits of those sacrifices in the form of Pravritti marga”. That means “no Nivritti marga” for them. They will have to be born on earth again . Each cosmic cycle will have gods of birth, death and so on.

It is interesting that the devas went ahead and performed the sacrifice. The text says that the sacrifice was for Vishnu (Narayana) and not Brahman. In other words, according to this part of Maha Bharata, Vishnu is Brahman.

This seems to be the basis of all the sacrifices in the Vedic tradition. Human beings perform sacrifices for the devas who preside over nature. Devas are pleased and give rain, water and wealth and prosperity to humans. Humans are therefore able to perform more sacrifices and the cycle goes on. Devas and humans are inter-dependent. 

In another section, there is a statement in the Commentary section of this book which states that this earth is the only place for actions. There is “no action” in heaven and  hell. The heaven is for the enjoyment of the fruits of our actions on this earth and the hell is for endurance of suffering.

Kanchi Periyaval quotes one passage from Bhagvat Gita on this topic. This is Lord Krishna’s advice: “You please the gods with yagnas(sacrifices). Let the gods take care of your welfare with rain and other auspicious things. Thus let both of your prosper through mutually helping each other”.

Friday, July 13, 2018

Samkhya Philosophy - Maha Bharatha Series 84


In Book 12, Section 304, Samkhya system is explained in detail. Samkhya system is one of the oldest and basic systems of Vedic philosophy. In this section, Prakriti is also called adhishtatri, the basic unit from which everything evolves (vikriti). In contrast and in addition to Prakriti, there is a vyapaka, one that pervades everything. This is formless and is also called akshara, which means indestructible. This second principle which energizes Prakriti and makes its evolved elements active is called Purusha.

 It is interesting to note that this akshara/purusha is also called Brahma and Vishnu in other places within this text. But, we know that in the original Samkhya system, which is basically atheistic, no names of Gods are used. Therefore, we must conclude that the names of Gods were superimposed on concepts of matter (prakriti) and energizing principle (purusha) later in history.

This kind of creative renaming of philosophical principles as Gods is common when theology takes over. This happened in the Christian theology also. In his book on “Philosophy as a way of life”, Pierre Hadot tells us that the Trinity was a re-naming of the old ideas of Logos, Physics and Ethics of Greek philosophers.

We are told that prakriti, which is one of the two original indestructible principles, dwells in all creatures as chit, or consciousness. The first “evolute” of Prakriti is Mahat, which is also called Buddhi or Knowledge. There is then mention of chetana, which is said to be eternal consciousness which has no form and no attributes. If so, this is also the same as Purusha. This has to be the jivan, in its individualized aspect and atman in its general aspect. In addition to energizing Prakriti, purusha gets caught by and identifies with the form, forgets its pure Nature and misidentifies with perishable things.

Samkhya system had two flaws. First, this system suggests two principles from which everything came. Most of us will think that there can be only One from which everything came.  Indeed, Nyaya and Vaiseshika systems which came later came to that conclusion through logic.  Later thinkers called Purusha, as Nirguna Brahman from which Saguna Brahman came.  In this interpretation, Saguna brahman is Prakriti, one with a form, Ishvara. This Ishvara can be Brahma, Vishnu or Shiva.

And, the other flaw is the complicated explanation that the final five gross elements to come out of prakriti perish at death but, the energizing element survives by attaching itself to another body. This is the basis of the concepts of karma and re-birth.

This is my understanding. If someone has understood these concepts better or differently, please send a comment.


Friday, July 6, 2018

The Varnas - Maha Bharata Series 83


The division of varnas is repeatedly mentioned and the role of members of each varna is also defined in this section (Book 12, Section 294).  It is very clear that brahmanas were expected to be held at the top of the heap and respected and supported by the other Varnas, particularly by the Kshatriyas and the Vaisyas.

Brahmanas (Brahmins?) were expected to learn the Vedas, practice self-restraint and teach the varna dharma to the other three. They were not to own any property but live on gifts (dana) from the kings and merchants, live frugally and give back their wealth and knowledge to others. They had to learn the sciences of the warriors, the merchants, the farmers and the artists and teach them to people of the appropriate varna. But they were not to make a living from those skills. They had to perform daily yagnas and pujas, maintain vratas such as fasting etc. Kanchi Periyaval points out that although Brahmins were held on top of the list, their lives were also highly regimented and demanding.

According to the texts, Kshatriyas are warriors and kings and are marked by their victories.  They are the protectors of law and order. The Vaisyas are the merchants and farmers and are marked by their wealth. They also support the Brahmins.  The sudras were expected to follow their dharma by serving the other three. In one place in Book 12 Section 294 (English version) the position of sudra is defined rather strongly and notes that they are not to take up other professions even if their parents had. However, during periods of stress, they could.

Two interesting comments in this section:  The god of Vaisyas is the god of Clouds. That makes sense. Is the name of this god Vritra or Indra who defeated Vritra? The legend is that Vritra (cloud) was holding up the waters. Indra used his thunderbolt (vajra) and tore apart Vritra to release the water so the earth can get rains.

Another comment seems to suggest that Asuras are not non-human beings. But they are people with demonic qualities – specifically lust, anger, pride and arrogance. As I understand Asuras are the counter-parts of the devas; and Rakshasas are the counterparts of the humans. They belong to different lokas – asuras to deva loka and rakshasas to manushya loka. In another sense, they are metaphors for qualities such as anger, impatience, anger etc.

In a conversation between King Janaka and Parasara, as told by Bhishma, King Janaka asks: “Is one stained by one’s acts or by the order/class (varna) in which he is born?”.  Parasara says that both have influence. But, one’s actions stain more than the birth since anyone, even one from a lower class can be saved based on his good conduct and virtuous actions.

In Section 300, Brahma in the form of a swan is speaking with the Sadhyas. A famous sloka on telling the truth comes in this section.  “To speak truth that is also righteous is better than just speaking the truth. To speak the truth in an agreeable way is even better than just speaking the truth which is righteous”. In other words, “It is not just what you say, it is how you say”.

In another section, there is a discussion between Yagnavalkya and a king from Janaka’s dynasty. Yagnavalkya explains both the Samkhya system and the Yoga system. One major new knowledge I gained was the reference to Prakriti as a female and Purusha as a male. Prakriti represents form or matter, not capable of doing anything and ignorant. Purusha is the knowledge behind the ability of Prakriti to create things. The relationship between Prakriti and Purusha is compared to that between fish and water, in the form of contact. Fish is in the water but is not part of it.