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Saturday, July 21, 2018

Devas and Humans are inter-dependent - Maha Bharatha series 85


We are still in Book 12 of Maha Bharatha. There are several passages on possible approaches to spiritual enlightenment in the later part of this book.  Two such approaches or paths are called Pravritti Marga and Nivritti Marga. Pravritti marga leads to conscious existence experiencing the fruits of action. This may be experiencing various kinds of pleasures in heaven  (called Vaikunta, if you are a Vaishnavite or Kailasa if you are a Shivite) or experience of suffering in hell. After enjoying the pleasures of heaven or suffering in hell, one has to come back to earth, if one follows Pravritti marga.

Nivritti marga leads to total liberation and emancipation. Nivritti marge leads to absorption into Brahman and therefore no rebirth.

As part of these discussions, Yudhistra asks why the devas (gods, angels) chose a life dependent on the sacrificial offerings of humans, instead of choosing complete emancipation. The answer is that they did not choose the Pravritti marga but, they were assigned Pravritti marga by Brahman.

In one version, it is said that the various devas including 11 Rudras and 12 Adityas came into existence out of Narayana. In this episode, Narayana declares himself to be the 12th son of Aditi. Thus, Vishnu who is originally mentioned in ancient texts as one of the Adityas, is made into a major god in Maha Bharata.

At one time when the oceans dried up, all the devas including Vishnu go to Brahman (not Brahma). He suggests that the devas must perform a sacrifice and offer it to Him. Devas cannot perform sacrifice in their world since they do not have the offerings such as plants, animals etc. They are available only on earth. However, when humans perform sacrifices to the devas there will be offerings. The devas should share part of those offerings given to them by humans with Brahman. In turn, Brahman will give each of the devas jurisdiction over specific parts of nature and of the human body. Brahman will also “ordain them to enjoy the fruits of those sacrifices in the form of Pravritti marga”. That means “no Nivritti marga” for them. They will have to be born on earth again . Each cosmic cycle will have gods of birth, death and so on.

It is interesting that the devas went ahead and performed the sacrifice. The text says that the sacrifice was for Vishnu (Narayana) and not Brahman. In other words, according to this part of Maha Bharata, Vishnu is Brahman.

This seems to be the basis of all the sacrifices in the Vedic tradition. Human beings perform sacrifices for the devas who preside over nature. Devas are pleased and give rain, water and wealth and prosperity to humans. Humans are therefore able to perform more sacrifices and the cycle goes on. Devas and humans are inter-dependent. 

In another section, there is a statement in the Commentary section of this book which states that this earth is the only place for actions. There is “no action” in heaven and  hell. The heaven is for the enjoyment of the fruits of our actions on this earth and the hell is for endurance of suffering.

Kanchi Periyaval quotes one passage from Bhagvat Gita on this topic. This is Lord Krishna’s advice: “You please the gods with yagnas(sacrifices). Let the gods take care of your welfare with rain and other auspicious things. Thus let both of your prosper through mutually helping each other”.

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